Undertaking Effective Cross-Language Questionnaire-Based Survey in Illiterate and Semi-Illiterate Rural Communities in the Developing Regions: Case of Communal Cattle Farmers in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

Abstract


This paper investigated similarities and differences between questionnaire instruments – Source language instrument (untranslated) and target language (translated) instrument employed to gather research data in a cross-cultural background in the developing regions, with special reference to illiterate and semi-illiterate rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This paper premises that there are differences of responses between the responses sourced from a source language version questionnaire and that of the translated cross-language version questionnaire. The results of this paper revealed that the majority (60%) of the responses differed in both sets of questionnaires while some (40%) responses on both sets of questionnaires were similar. The implication is that collecting survey data from a cross-language translated version questionnaire might provide a better and reliable data collection option than collecting survey data from a directly translated – or untranslated version during interviews. The differences appear to be influenced mainly by the socio-demographic factors of the respondents. The noted differences might affect the over-all quality of results of the particular survey. This paper argues that such differences might have implications for the design of policy and strategic intervention measures since such interventions might have emanated from flawed results.


Keywords


Cross-language, Data collection, Interviews, Language, Translation, Tshivenda.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akpalu, D.A. (2005). Response scenarios of households to drought-driven foot shortage in semi-arid areas in South Africa. Unpublished MA thesis. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Bailey, K.D. (1987). Methods of Social Research. London: Collier MacMillan.

Douglas, S.P. & Craig, C.S. (2007). Collaborative and interactive translation: An Alternative Approach to Back Translation. Journal of International Marketing, American Marketing Association 15(1): 30-43.

Goddard, W. & Melville, S. (1996). Research methodology: An introduction. Lansdowne: Juta.

Hangara, G.N., Teweldemedhin, M.Y. & Groenewald, I.B. 2011. Measuring factors that can influence cattle supply response to the market in Namibia: Case study from Omaheke communal farmers. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development 3(8): 141-146.

Harkness, J.A. & Schoua-Glusberg, A. (1998). Questionnaires in translation. ZUMA – Nachrichten Spezial: 87-126.

Harzing, A. (2006). Response styles in cross-national surveys research: A 26 country study. International Journal of Cross-cultural Management 6(2): 1-38.

ICN. (2005). Translation Guidelines for ICNP. Geneva, Switzerland.

Jiang, S., Lambert, E.G. & Wang, J. (2006). Issues in cross-cultural justice survey research: A case of U.S. and China collaboration. Internet Journal of Criminology. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.co. [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Juma, R.O. (2009). Turkana livelihood strategies and adaptation to drought in Kenya. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. Victoria University of Wellington. Wellington, Australia.

Kavanagh, K. (2000). Words in a Cultural Context. Paper presented as a keynote address at the Fifth International Conference of the African Association for Lexicography, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 3-5 July 2000. Lexikos 10 (AFRILEX – reeks/series 10:2000):99-118.

Kyrillidou, M., Olshen, T., Heath, F., Bonnely, C. & Cote, J. (2003). Cross-cultural implementation of

LibQUAL+TM: the French Language experience. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.libgual.org.documents/admin/Northumbria%20final6.pdf.[Accessed 24 May 2008].

May, T. (1997). Social Research issues, methods and process. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University.

Nanja, D.H. (2010). Dissemination of climatic information to small-holder farmers: A case study for Mujika area, Zambia. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Naotaka, W. (1992). Item Response Theory and Language Translation. An Aid to Comparative Studies of Management in the United States and Japan. [online] Retrieved from: 21 May 2008].

Nengovhela, N.B. (2010). Improving the wellbeing of people dependent on the low-income beef industry in South Africa. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of Queensland, Australia.

Nthakheni, N.D. (2006). A livestock production systems study among resource-poor livestock owners in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Peil, M. (1995). Social Science Research Methods, a handbook for Africa. Nairobi: East African Educational.

Randela, R. (2005). Integration of emerging cotton farmers into the commercial agricultural economy. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Sherry, E. (2002). Constructing partnerships: A Delphi study of shared resources management in the North Yukon. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of Northern British Columbia.

Stroebel, A. (2004). Socio-economic complexities of small-holder resource-poor ruminant livestock production systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.

Su, C.T. & Parham, L.D. (2002). Case Report – Generating a valid questionnaire translation for cross-cultural use. American Journal of Occupational Therapy (56): 581-585.

Temple, B. & Edwards, R. (2002). Interpreters/translators and cross-language research: Reflexivity and border crossings. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1(2).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v3i11.541

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@theartsjournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add theartsjournal.org in your email safe list.

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053

[Journal of Arts and Humanities previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]