Feminist Online Identity: Analyzing the Presence of Hashtag Feminism
Keywords:hashtag feminism, virtual feminism
AbstractIn theory, the concept of hashtag feminism has created a virtual space where victims of inequality can coexist together in a space that acknowledges their pain, narrative, and isolation. As social scientists Susan Herring, Kirk Job-Sluder, Rebecca Scheckles, & Sasha Barab (2002) state, these properties make online forums appeal favorable to vulnerable populations seeking support from ‘disease or abuse, and to members of minority, social and political groups such as homosexuals, racial minorities, and feminists’ (p. 371). However, in identifying online communities such as Twitter and Facebook as safe spaces for expressing feminism views and politics, its ramifications present dire consequences which lead to online harassment, hate speech, disagreements, and a miscommunication in rhetoric. It is with these consequences that the academic discourse becomes lost in transmitting the message of what feminism is and how feminists are identified.Using the ongoing debate that feminism does not acknowledge real life experience outside of academic terrain, this paper explores how hashtag feminists identify in redefining feminism in their generation. Using the public platform of Twitter and Facebook (less specifically), this paper will explore the online followings of women who identify as hashtag feminists, and how their dialogue has set the tone for the era of internet activism.
Altman, I. & Taylor, D. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships.
New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
Collins, P. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment.
Routledge: New York & London
Capachi, C. (2013 December 17). Suey Park: Asian American Women are #NotYourAsianSidekick.
The Washington Post Blog. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/she-the-people/wp/2013/12/17/suey-park-asian-american-women-are-notyourasiansidekick/
Gilmore, S. (ed). (2008). Feminist coalitions: Historical perspectives on second-wave feminism
in the United States. University of Illinois
Herring, S., Job-Sluder, J., Scheckler, R., Barab, S. (2002). Searching for safety online: Managing
“trolling” in a feminist forum. The Information Society, 18: 371-384
Haslanger, S. & Tuana, N. (2003 February). Topics in Feminism. Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
King, J. (2014 May 9). Is Beyonce a terrorist? Black Feminist scholars debate Bell Hooks. Colorlines
News For Action. Retrieved from: http://colorlines.com/archives/2014/05/black_feminist_scholars_debate_bell_hooks_beyonce_terrorist_remark.html
Litoff, A. (2014 May 6). Bring back our girls’ becomes rallying cry for kidnapped Nigerian schoolgirls.
ABC News. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/International/bring-back-girls-rallying-cry-kidnapped-nigerian-schoolgirls/story?id=23611012
Pan, B. & Crotts, J. (2012). Chapter seven: Theoretical models of social media. Ulrike, G., Christou, E.,
& Sigala, M. (2012). Social media in travel, tourism, and hospitality: Theory, practice, and
cases. Ashgate Publishing: Burlington, Vermont
Regan, P. (2008). The mating game: A primer on love, sex, and marriage. 2nd edition. California State
University Publishing: Los Angeles
Strets, J. & Burke, P. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly.
The Personal Narratives Group. (ed). (1989). Interpreting women’s lives: Feminist theory and personal n arrative. Personal Narratives Group: Indiana University Press
Tobin, A. (4 August 2013). Q&A with #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen creator Mikki Kendall.
Bustle Entertainment. Retrieved from: http://www.bustle.com/articles/3612-qa-with-solidarityisforwhitewomen-creator-mikki-kendall
Twitter, Huffington Post, e-Marketer. (2014 January 1). Twitter Statistics and Users. Retrieved from:
Zhang, S., Jiang, H., & Carrell. (2010). Social identity in facebook community life. International
Journal of Virtual Communities and Social Networking. 2(4), 66-78
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).