How Could Prison Products Come into the International Market? Analysis of the Consistency between WTO and ILO Rules

Xixue Shang, Guido Van Limberghen

Abstract


Nowadays, in many countries, a increasing number of private companies resort to prison labor. In fact, inmates work more and more for private undertakings both inside and outside prison. In consideration of private companies generally engaged in international trade, prison labor thus participate in global supply chains. Then under such circumstances, there is a developing trend that prison economy is being marketed internationally. Nevertheless, there are some institutional barriers in international trade policies, such as WTO rules, which in principle prohibit prison labor product coming into international market. This research aims to discuss the possibility of exports of prison products in international trade market within WTO/GATT framework. In terms of prisoners’ labor rights protection, by exploring the consistency of WTO rule with ILO standard, the research intends to find the possibility of prison labor product being accepted by the international market. Feasibility analysis is developed in the research to propose constructive suggestion for an open question in the international law.


Keywords


Global market, ILO, Prison product, WTO/GATT.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aman, Alfred C. and Greenhouse, Carol. (2015). Prison Privatization and Inmate Labor in the Global Economy: Reframing the Debate over Private Prisons. Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol.42,2015; Indiana Legal Studies Research Paper No. 317.Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2608572

Arthur E. Appleton and Michael G. Plummer (Eds.). (2007). The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis. International Trade Law Center, Springer Science & Business Media.

Chartres, Renee L. and Mercurio, Bryan Christopher. (May 23, 2012). A Call for an Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Labor: Why and How the WTO Should Play a Role in Upholding Core Labor Standards. North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol. 37, pp. 665-724, 2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2065621

Compa, L. (1993). Labor Rights and Labor Standards in International Trade [Electronic version]. Retrieved [09 June, 2016], from Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations site: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/articles/341/

Diane Desierto. (2015). Public Policy in International Economic Law: The ICESCR in Trade, Finance, and Investment.OUP Oxford.

Daniel C. K. Chow, (2014). Why China Opposes Human Rights in the World Trade Organization.35 J. Int'l L. issue 1, pp. 61-111. Available at: http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/jil/vol35/iss1/2

Daniel C. K. Chow, Thomas J. Schoenbaum. (2012). International Trade Law: Problems, Cases, and Materials (2d ed.). Aspen Publishers.

Fick, Barbara J., (Sept. 30, 2014). Corporate Social Responsibility for Enforcement of Labor Rights: Are There More Effective Alternatives?. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2601006 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2601006

Freeman R. International Labor Standards and World Trade: Friends or Foes?. In: The World Trading System: Challenges Ahead. Vol. 87-114. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics; 1997. pp. 87-114. Available at: https://piie.com/publications/chapters_preview/66/5iie2350.pdf

Globerson, Micah. (2013)."Using Border Trade Adjustments to Address Labor Rights Concerns Under the WTO." Labor & Employment Law Forum 3, no. 1 (2013): 48-87. Available at: http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=lelb

Gabrielle Marceau, (2002). WTO Dispute Settlement and Human Rights. 13 EUR. J. INT’L L.

Levin, Benjamin. (June 18, 2014). Inmates for Rent, Sovereignty for Sale: The Global Prison Market. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2014. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2456422

Milman-Sivan, Faina. (March 1, 2013). Prisoners for Hire: Towards a Normative Justification of the ILO's Prohibition of Private Forced Prisoner Labor. Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2013. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2408864

Sarah Cleveland. (2002). Human Rights Sanctions and International Trade: A Theory of Compatibility, 5 J. INT’L ECON. L. 133 (2002).

Tilahun Weldie Hindeya. (2013). Unilateral Trade Sanctions as a Means to Combat Human Rights Abuses: Legal and Factual Appraisal. Mizan Law Review, Vol 7, No. 1. Available at: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/mlr/article/view/100558

Trebilcock M. J., Robert Howse, & Antonia Eliason (Eds.).(2013). The Regulation of International Trade (4th ed.). Routledge.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v6i3.1133

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@theartsjournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add theartsjournal.org in your email safe list.

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053

[Journal of Arts and Humanities previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]