Investigating the Relationships between Effective Principal Leadership Practices and School Effectiveness As Perceived By Teachers


  • Andre Martin Education



The international literature is replete with a discourse on the link between principal leadership and school effectiveness. However, in the Caribbean where there is limited school effectiveness research, perceptions of key school factors can drive critical decision making or education policy regarding the influence of principals to improve schools. Interestingly, although the literature is sated with features of high performing schools, it is debatable as to the leadership practices that must be emphasized for principals to lead their schools to effectiveness. This research examined the relationship between effective principal leadership practices and school effectiveness as ascertained by teachers in primary and secondary public schools in Grenada. A quantitative correlation research design was used to survey the ratings of teachers on effective principal leadership practices and school effectiveness. The results confirmed the relationship between Effective Principal Leadership Practices and School Effectiveness. The results also indicated that at the primary school level, principal leadership practices with a focus on instruction best envisages school effectiveness whereas at the secondary level, the evidence suggests that the better practices relate to instructional focus and accountability focus.    


In the Caribbean where there is limited school effectiveness research, perceptions of critical factors can drive critical decision making or education policy.  The international literature is replete with a discourse on the link between principal leadership and school effectiveness. This research share light on the relationship between principal leadership practices and school effectiveness as experienced by/ public primary and secondary school teachers in a Grenadian context. Using a survey design, the study revealed that in a purposive sample of 726 teachers, Principal Leadership Practices and School Effectiveness shared a moderate direct relationship. Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that at the primary school level, principal leadership practices with a focus on instruction best predicts school effectiveness whereas at the secondary level, the evidence suggests that the better practices relate to instructional focus and accountability focus. This study builds on the limited foundation of school effectiveness research in the Caribbean. There are implications for school development plans and for the advancement of principal leadership as in preparatory programmes, training, or professional development.


Arivayagan, K., & Pihie, Z. A. L. (2017). Teacher’s perceptions related to principals’ creative leadership practices towards school effectiveness. The Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, 3(3).

Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interaction, perspective and method. Englewood Cliff, NJ:

Prentice Hall, Inc.

Boberg, J. E., Bourgeois, S. J., & Bryant, D. (2016). The effects of integrated transformational leadership on achievement. Journal of Educational Administration.

Bush, T. (2018). Preparation and induction for school principals: Global perspectives. Management in Education, 32(2), 66-71. Retrieved from

Cerit, Y., & Yildirim, B. (2017). The relationship between primary school principals’ effective leadership behaviours and school effectiveness. Bart?n Üniversitesi E?itim Fakültesi Dergisi, 6(3), 902-914.

Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., Brown, E. Ahtaridou, E. & Kington, A. (2009). The impact of school leadership on pupil outcomes: Final report. Nottingham, UK: University of Nottingham. Retrieved from:

Deligiannidou, T., Athanailidis, I., Laios, A., & Stafyla, A. (2020). Determining effective leadership qualities of a school principal from the perception of PE teachers in Greece. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20, 2126-2135. Retrieved from:

Grissom, J. A., & Loeb, S. (2011). Triangulating principal effectiveness: How perspectives of parents, teachers, and assistant principals identify the central importance of managerial skills. American Educational Research Journal, 48(5), 1091-1123.Retrieved from

Gumus, S., Bellibas, M.S., Esen, M. & Gumus, E. (2018). A Systematic Review of Studies on Leadership Models in Educational Research from 1980 to 2014. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 46 (1), 25–48. Retrieved from:

Gurr, D. (2015). A model of successful school leadership from the international successful school principalship project. Societies, 5(1), 136-150. doi:10.3390/soc5010136

Gurley, D. K., Anast-May, L., O’Neal, M., Lee, H. T., & Shores, M. (2015). Instructional leadership behaviors in principals who attended an assistant principals’ academy: Self reports and teacher perceptions. Planning & Changing, 46 (1), 127-157.

Hallinger, P. (2018). Bringing context out of the shadows of leadership. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 46 (1), 5-24.

Heck, R. H., & Hallinger, P. (2014). Modelling the effects of school leadership on teaching and learning over time. Journal of Educational Administration, 52 (5), 653-681. Retrieved from:

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic review of key leader practices found to influence student achievement: A unified framework. Review of educational research, 86(2),531-569. Retrieved from:

Ibrahim, A., & Al-Taneiji, S. (2012). Principal leadership style, school performance, and principal effectiveness in Dubai schools. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 2(1), 41-54. Retrieved from :

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2013). Great leadership creates great workplaces. John Wiley & Sons.

Kwan, P. (2020). Is transformational leadership theory passé? Revisiting the integrative effect of instructional leadership and transformational leadership on student outcomes. Educational Administration Quarterly, 56(2), 321-349.

Lee, M., Walker, A., & Ling Chui, Y. (2012). Contrasting effects of instructional leadership practices on student learning in a high accountability context. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), 586-611. Retrieved from

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management. Retrieved from:

Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K. L., Anderson, S. E., Michlin, M., Gordon M., Thomas E., Strauss T., Moore S. & Mascall, B. (2010). Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning. Final report of research to the Wallace Foundation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. Retrieved from:

Marzano, R., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

May, H., & Supovitz, J. A. (2011). The scope of principal efforts to improve instruction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(2), 332-352. Retrieved from:

Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society (Vol. 111). Chicago, IL: University of

Chicago Press.

Muijs, D. (2011). Leadership and organizational performance: From research to prescription? International Journal of Educational Management, 25(1), 45-60.

Nadeem, N. A., & Mudasir, B. (2012). Research on leadership behaviour of educational administrators- a critical review of literature. Scholarly Journal of Education, 1(2), 20-30.

Nartgün, ?. S., Limon, ?., & Dilekçi, Ü. (2020). The relationship between sustainable leadership and perceived school effectiveness: the mediating role of work effort. Bart?n University Journal of Faculty of Education, 9(1), 141-154. Retrieved from:

Neumerski, C. M., Grissom, J. A., Goldring, E., Rubin, M., Cannata, M., Schuermann, P., & Drake, T. A. (2018). Restructuring instructional leadership: How multiple-measure teacher evaluation systems are redefining the role of the school principal. The Elementary School Journal, 119(2), 270-297.

Nir, A. E. & Hameiri, L. (2014). School principals’ leadership styles and school outcomes. Journal of Educational Administration, 52(2), 210-227. Retrieved from:

Özdemir, G., ?ahin, S., & Öztürk, N. (2020). Teachers’ self-efficacy perceptions in terms of school principal’s instructional leadership behaviours. International Journal of Progressive Education, 16(1), 25-40. Retrieved from

Printy, S., Marks, H., & Bowers, A. (2010). Integrated leadership: How principals and teachers share transformational and instructional influences. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Reagle, C. (2006). Creating effective schools where all students can learn. Rural Educator, 27(3), 24-33. Retrieved from

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), 635-674. Retrieved from:

Sebastian, J., Huang, H., & Allensworth, E. (2017). Examining integrated leadership systems in high schools: Connecting principal and teacher leadership to organizational processes and student outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 28(3), 463-488. Retrieved from:

Shannon, G. S., & Bylsma, P. (2007). Nine characteristics of high-performing schools: A research-based resource for schools and districts to assist with improving student learning. Washington, D.C.: Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved from:

Shatzer, R. H., Caldarella, P., Hallam, P. R., & Brown, B. L. (2014). Comparing the effects of instructional and transformational leadership on student achievement: Implications for practice. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 42(4), 445-459.

Shava, G. N., & Tlou, F. N. (2018). Distributed Leadership in Education, Contemporary Issues in Educational Leadership. African Educational Research Journal, 6(4), 279-287. Retrieved from:

Shen, W., & Joseph, D. L. (2020). Gender and leadership: A criterion-focused review and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 100765.

Urick, A., & Bowers, A. J. (2014). What are the different types of principals across the United States? A latent class analysis of principal perception of leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(1), 96-134. Retrieved from:

Waters, T., Marzano, R. J., & McNulty, B. (2003). Balanced leadership: What 30 years of research tells us about the effect of leadership on student achievement. A working paper. Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). Retrieved from