Phenomenon of Women Marginalization in Poor Family in Pakpak Community (A Case Study in Pegagan Julu Village, Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi Regency - North Sumatra - Indonesia)

Hadriana Marhaeni Munthe

Abstract


This article is taken from the study of marginalization cases experienced by Pakpak women of rural poor families. The study was conducted in Pegagan village of Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi, North Sumatra province. The marginalization phenomenon is shown in some aspects; restrictions on women's access to formal education, tendency of dropping out of school, having no inheritance rights and no role in the decision making of custom. Related to this phenomenon, the research question of this study is how the process of marginalization experienced by women in their family is.Marxist structural feminist perspective and qualitative approach with feminist perspective were used to answer the research question. The findings of the study finally show that the structured patriarchy ideology as gender ideology in family becomes the cause of women marginalization. Patriarchy becoming gender ideological construction in Pakpak family is interpreted and expressed in the form of private patriarchy, that is a hegemonizing system or structure of men power that has dominated and subordinated social position of women in Pakpak families.

Keywords


Marginalization, Pakpak women, family, private patriarchy, gender inequality and Pakpak community.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abell, Hillary. (1999). Endangering Women’s Health for Profit: Health and Safety in Mexico’s Maquiladoras, Development in Practice 9:595:600, Oxfam GB, Routledge.

Boangmanalu, Ampe.S.(2009). The View of West Pakpak Prostitutes on Women Politic Participation. Thesis, Magister of Development Study. Faculty of Social and Politic Science. USU.

Boserup, Ester. (1970). Women’s Role in Economic Development, New York. St.Martin Press.

Cevallos, Diego .(2003). Mexico: Toll of Murdered Young Women Tops 300 http.//www. corpwatch.org. Accessed on November 30, 2013.

Chafetz, Janet Saltzman. (2006). Handbook of Sociology Gender, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, Springer Science Business Media, LLC.

Chafous, Tabbye and Cogburn, Courtney D (2007). Superinvisible Women; Black Women + Gender+ Families, Vol. 1, No, , University of Illinois Press. pp. 24-51.

Chester, Barbara; Robin, Robert W; Koss, Mary P.(1994). Grandmother Dishonored: Violence Against by Male Partners in American Indian Communities, Native North American, Volume. 9. No.3, Springer Publishing Company.pp.20-30.

Chowdorry, Elora Halim. (2005). Feminist Negotiations: Contesting Narratives of The Campaign against Acid Violence in Bangladesh, Meridian, Vol.6, no-1, Smith College. pp.35-46.

Coomaraswamy, R. (2005). The Varied Contours of Violence Against Women in South Asia. Paper presented in Fifth South Asia Minister Conference, Pakistan Government and South Asia UNIFEM Office.

Erturk, Y. (2007). Intersection between Culture and Violence against Women http://daccess.ods.un.org/TMP/3670902-25219727.html. Diakses 30 nopember 2013.

Fakih, Mansour. (1996). Gender Analysis and Social Transformation. Yogyakarta : Penerbit Pustaka Pelajar.

Fakih, Mansour. (1996).Gender as Social Analysis Tool in Social Analysis Journal edition 4/Nov 1996. Gender Analysis in Understanding Women Problems. Bandung, Yayasan Akatiga.

Greiff, Shaina. (2011). No Justice in Justification: Violence on Women in the Name of Cultture, Religion, and Tradition, http//www.stopkilling.org. Accessed on March 10, 2013.

Hartini, Titik. (2004). Marginalization and Inequality of Micro Enterprise Women Relation and Empowerment Efforts: Case Study of Micro Enterprise Women in Klaten, Central Tengah. Thesis. Women Study Program. Graduate Program, University of Indonesia.

Holzner, Brigitte and Ratna Saptari. (1997). Working Women, and Social Changes, First Edition, Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti.

Holzner, Brigitte. (2003). Participation, Power, and Feminist Study: Ideas in A Development Perspective, Social Analysis Journal, Vol.8. no.2. October. pp.1-11.

Hunter, Anna. (2005) The Violence that Indigenous Women Face : Native North American Canada in Journal Political Science, Vol.39. No.2, Winnipeg Canada: Canadian Dimension. pp.25-37.

Johnson, Michael P. (2005). Domestic Violence. It’s not about Gender or is it? . Journal of Marriage and Family. Dec.2005; 67, 5 . Academic Research Library.

Kabeer, Naila. (2005). Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goals. Gender and Development Vol.13. No.3. March. pp.125-137.

Kaliboso, Rita Serena. (2002). The Crime is Named Domestic Violence, in Women Journal, No. 26. Jakarta: Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan.

Lengermann. Patricia Madoo, and Jill Niebrugge .(2008). Contemporary Feminist Theory in George Ritzer, Sociological Theory (translated), Yogyakarta: Kreasi Wacana.

Maquire, Pat. ( 1984). Women in Development: An Alternatives Analysis, Amherst: Center For International Education, University of Massachusetts.

Maria, Maria. (2003). The Violence Continues Against the Participation of Women and Their Organization, Women & Environments International Magazine, Vol/Issue 58/59 .Toronto: WEED Foundation. pp.77-95.

McFadden, Maggie. (2001). On Unprotected Females, Violence, and Survival in the New World: Introduction, Women’s Interests, Vol.13. No.1, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.1-10.

Muda, I and Abykusno Dharsuky (2015). Impact Of Region Financial Information System (SIKD) Quality, Role Ambiguity And Training on Precision of Financial Statement of Local Government Presentation In North Sumatra. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 13(6). pp.4283-4304.

Muda, I, Marlon Sihombing, Erni Jumilawati and Abikusno Dharsuky. (2016). Critical Success Factors Downstream Palm Oil Based Small And Medium Enterprises (SME) In Indonesia. International Journal of Economic Research. 13(8), pp. 3531-3538.

Muda, I, Dharsuky. A., Siregar, H.S., and Sadalia, I. (2017). combined loading and Cross-dimensional loadings timeliness of presentation of financial statements of local government. IOP Conference Series : Materials Science and Engineering. 180. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012099.

Moore, Henrietta L. (1988). Feminism and Anthropology, Jakarta, Project of Gender and Development Study. FISIP University of Indonesia.

Mulia,Siti Musdah.(2004). Violence on Women and Children, in National Reconciliation: Towards Democratic Indonesian Civil Society, in Judo Poerwidagdo (editor) Jakarta, Center for Reconciliation and Peace Development.

Munthe, Hadriana Marhaeni. (2007). Modernization and Society Social Changes in Agriculture Development: A Sociological Review”, Social Harmony Journal, Volume II, No.1. pp.1-9.

Padang, Adriana P. (2009). Position of Pakpak Ethnical Women in Obtaining Formal Education., Undergraduate Thesis Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Politic Science. University of North Sumatera.

Pardede, Erlina. (2010). Exploring Women Violence Forms in Indigenous Communities. Sidikalang : Penerbit Pesada.

Pesada. (2002). Questioning Women Politic Participation in Indigenous Communities, http://www.kalyanamitra.or.id /blog /2010 /10/ mempersoalkan-partisipasi- politik-perempuan-dalam-masyarakat-adat/. Accessed on January 11, 2012.

Pitaloka, Rieke Diah, (2004). State Violence Transmitted to Communities., Yogyakarta : Galang Press.

Purnama, Lia.(2001). Violence on Girls in Women Journal No.16, Jakarta: Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan.

Stamp. P.(1986). Technology, Gender and Power in Africa. Ottawa: IDRC Perspectives Canadian Women Studies Vol.7.

Sirojuzilam, Hakim, S., and Muda, I. (2016). Identification of factors of failure of Barisan Mountains Agropolitan area development in North Sumatera– Indonesia. International Journal of Economic Research. 13(5). pp.2163-2175.

Susanty, Emy. (2003) Women In Poor Communities; Study on Ideology and Gender Relation in Kedungmangu Masjid Community in Surabaya, Dissertation, Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University.

Tarmizi, HB., Daulay, M., and Muda, I. (2017). Impact of The Economic Growth and Acquisition of Land to The Construction Cost Index in North Sumatera. IOP Conference Series : Materials Science and Engineering. 180. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012004.

Tinendung, Suryani. (2012). Analysis of Women Position in Pakpak Family Social Status, Undergraduate Thesis: Sociology, Faculty of Social and Politic Science. University of North Sumatra.

Tong, Rosemarie Putnam. (2006). Feminist Thought ; The Most Comprehensive Introduction in Feminist Thought Mainstream. Translated. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.

Venny, Adriana (2006) . The Importance of Feminist Methodology in Indonesia in Women Journal no 48 July Jakarta : Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan.

Walby, Sylvia. (1990). Theorizing Patriarchy, Oxford, Basic Blackwell Ltd.

Wijaya. Hesty R (1996). Gender Analysis in Understanding Women Problems, Bandung, Gender Perspective Study in Social Analysis Journal. Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.163–179.

Winchester, Hilary P.M. (1990). Women and Children Last: The Poverty and Marginalization of One-Parent Families. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. New Series. Vol 15. No 1 pp.70-86.

Younth, Kathryn; Carrera, Jennifers. (2006). Domestic Violence Against Married Women in Cambodia. Social Forces Vol. 85 No.1 Social, UK, Chapel Hill, Oxford University Press.

Zaman, Habiba; Rothenberg. Celia E .(2000). Patriarchy & Purdah: Structural & Systemic Violence Against Women in Bangladesh”, Journal Anthropologic Vol.42, Canada, Canadian Anthropology Society.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v6i6.1196

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@theartsjournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add theartsjournal.org in your email safe list.

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053